Ainda o Gutenberg

Porque no último post sobre o Gutenberg tinha deixado em aberto a ideia da prensa de impressão ter vindo da China. Pois bem, ainda não encontrei o documentário onde vi isso (Canal Odisséia), mas aqui ficam algumas referências sobre as origens da impressão:

The earliest dated printed book known is the “Diamond Sutra”, printed in China in 868 CE. However, it is suspected that book printing may have occurred long before this date.

Mary Bellis, http://inventors.about.com/od/gstartinventors/a/Gutenberg.htm

The Chinese invention of moveable type, credited to Bi Sheng in the year 1045 AD.

buda@uvic.ca, http://www.educ.uvic.ca/faculty/mroth/438/CHINA/CHINA-PRINTING.HTML

Although both woodblock printing and movable type printing technologies were already developed in ancient China and later Korea in East Asia a few hundred years prior, they did not use a press like that of Gutenberg.

Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press

Wooden movable type was first developed around 1040 AD by Bi Sheng (990–1051), as described by the Chinese scholar Shen Kuo (1031–1095), but was abandoned in favour of clay moveable types due to uneveness of the moveable wooden type after soaked in ink, also due to the presense of wood grains.[11] In 1298, Wang Zhen, a governmental official of Jingde, Anhui province, China, re-invented a method of making moveable wooden types. He made more than 30,000 wooden movable types and printed 100 copies of Records of Jingde County (旌德县志), a book of more than 60,000 Chinese characters. Soon afterwards, he summarized his invention in his book A method of making moveable wooden types for printing books. Although the wooden type was more durable under the mechanical rigors of handling, repeated printing wore the character faces down, and the types could only be replaced by carving new pieces. This system was later enhanced by pressing wooden blocks into sand and casting metal types from the depression in copper, bronze, iron or tin.[5] The set of wafer-like metal stamp types could be assembled to form pages, inked, and page impressions taken from rubbings on cloth or paper.[5]

Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movable_type

Ainda há uma série de referências (especialmente do About.com) que vale a pena visitar, mas que já são um pouco redundantes. Afinal, sempre confirmo através do desenho acima, a imprensa de caracteres móveis é dos chineses. O que realmente trouxe Gutenberg de inovador, foi a adaptação da prensa de espiral utilizada na tecnologia do vinho para “industrializar” o processo. Não é para retirar o crédito, mas realmente ainda esotu um pouco obcecado em recuperar as informações que não registei desse documentário do Canal Odisséia. Nesse documentário podiamos ver uma recriação funcional do diagrama acima… enfim… não se pode ter tudo.

Mais links:

http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/printing.htm

http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa100197.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movable_type

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bi_Sheng

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_typography_in_East_Asia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Zhen_%28official%29

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_Press

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_western_typography

http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1045bisheng.htm

http://www.rightreading.com/printing/gutenberg.asia/gutenberg-asia-7-china-movable-type.htm

http://www.huangshantour.com/english/ReadNews.asp?NewsID=762

http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-06/28/content_70176.htm

http://www.isrl.uiuc.edu/~chip/projects/timeline/1045bisheng.htm

e mais no meu del.icio.us

Author: Pedro Amado

Professor Auxiliar na Universidade de Aveiro a leccionar Design de Interação

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